How do water currents affect the results? How does it work with movement of water downstream in rivers or in currents in the sea?

While eDNA has been known to theoretically travel many kilometres in rivers, its constant deposition and decay makes the probability of detection increasingly small over larger distances and depending on the size of the river and flow rates. In marine environments it was originally thought that water/DNA would be so well mixed that there would be limited spatial resolution. However, this was found not to be the case. In fact DNA from animals in specific habitats can be detected using eDNA in marine environments with surprisingly good spatial resolution, at least in shallow to moderately deep waters (see Port et al., 2016 for an example). In deep water, thermoclines, haloclines and strong currents could affect eDNA and as such multiple samples are recommended at different depths for best results.

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